All posts by frankiemay2

I am currently studying Printmaking 1 with the OCA. Previous courses include Drawing 1 and Painting 1.

Project 7:Multiblock linoprints


This project follows form the single colour print “Anywhere but Here” and seeks to investigate the history of the. It’s of Glasgow which was such an important influence of both myself and my dad. The People’s Palace is a key repository for the archive of the city’s way of life over the last 2 centuries. It is an iconic landmark for Glaswegians and I felt that it would be a fitting place to start my journey.  The prints were initiated by a sketchbook visit.

People’s Palace locations sketches

Three blocks were prepared  to make up the final print. Some prints were taken to assess colour choices and cutting issues. Some excerpts from the sketchbook are shown below.




 Materials and technical skills

Once again, one of the biggest challenges in starting lino printing has been getting to grips with technical aspects.

  • Cutting the blocks: I found it difficult initially to get to grips with the lino cutting tools and struggled with the physical aspects of controlling the tools.

This improved as I went through the various exercises and by the end of project 7, I was beginning to get a much better feel for what kinf of marks I could make.

  • Planning a design which would work was particularly challenging when multiple blocks were used. I was aware of having to think through how the cutting would progress with each block and also to consider how each colour would print over the others.


  • Registration was a real challenge with the multi-block pieces. However, I did create a cardboard jig which was a huge help with registration. However, there were still challenges, as the lino was pre-bought and I became aware that the blocks night not be exactly the same size which became significant when it came to registering the prints. I realised that if I lined the paper up to the same corner of the jig and the paper registration marks I had placed, this seemed to work better. I repeated exercise 7, creating 2 different print editions in different sizes as I felt that I had not got to grips with the process clearly for “Carnival”. I was aware that I had to backtrack to cover up overcutting of white on my first block, resulting in a change from the original design I had envisaged.


By my second attempt “People’s Palace”, I was much more comfortable with the process of both thinking through the design of the blocks and in registering them correctly. I did overcut white from my first block on the red sandstone building and tried to correct it with filer retrospectively. This didn’t work very well and it is now clear that it is very hard to get rid of unwanted white later!


I felt that I had worked out a system for holding the paper and placing it down on the inked block, reducing the number of smudges I was getting on the print borders. Using rubber gloves and religiously removing them for paper handling also cut down smudges.





Observation and visual awareness


I think that I was better able to relax into thinking about creative elements of my work for part 2. The use of location sketching was particularly helpful. In “People’s Palace” I was able to refer to the 2 large sketches I had done on the site to create a fuller mental picture for composing the print. I think this is reflected in the quality of the final image.

For “ Carnival” and “ the Soul is Mine Alone”, it was difficult to make location sketches as the masks which were the source material for the project were located in a shop window in a very busy location in Venice. For this work, I relied greatly on the Photoshop computer programme to explore creative possibilities. I think I would have produced stronger work if I has been able to sketch or revisit the site.

Quality of outcome

I think that this has improved hugely I progressed through the course, keeping clean borders on the prints as I progressed through part 2. The use of a jig worked well for me and I would definitely use this method where I can.

  • “Anywhere but Here”: I was pleased with the quality of the print achieved, achieving some good sharp prints.
  • “The Soul is Mine Alone”: I feel this is a strong image. I think the print could have been better if I had created a more triangular composition here. I think it worked well in different colourways and using different papers. I particularly liked the foil and was surprised how well the ink stuck to the kitchen foil
  • “ Carnival”: the prints are colourful and interesting, but the image could have been better if I had been more careful about how much lino I removed from the first block. I ended up overcutting certain areas of the masks and feel the prints could have been clearer. The black overlay of the third block helped to pull the final print together.


  • “People’s Palace”: I think the final image is strong, with good visual impact. The prints also work well in a more abstract sense when blocks 1 and 2 are used together. I would also like to try different colour combinations with these blocks. I overcut the first block and created white areas on brown building which I could not get rid of which impairs the final print a bit. I liked the end result and think I have been true to the spirit of a well-known local landmark. Importantly for me, other people have recognised what it is supposed to represent!


For me, this part of the course has been about gaining a grounding in techniques as it is obvious that if the work is poor the initial vision is hard to realise properly.

I felt I was improving my technical skills and enjoyed the creative process, particularly working with the masks and the “Peoples palace” project.

Context, research, reflection and critical thinking

I think the biggest lesson I have learned during part 2 is the use of the small sketchbook. It will be essential to gather a library of ideas which can be drawn on for future reference. An example is the detailed drawing of natural elements which can be brought in to add interest and narrative to the prints., for example in the work of Mark Hearld.

I have tried to keep better notes as went along for this part of the course, thinking of the sketchbook as a toolkit for future reference. This is particularly important if mistakes are not to be repeated.

I have also tried to better link my research to my own work, which I found very helpful in developing my own practice.




Political Art: Max Beckman


Max Beckman


As part of my investigation for the Mask series, I looked at the work of the Expressionist artist, Max Beckman, with a particular focus on the painting “Carnival”.The painting is a triptych (one of nine painted by the artist).

It has been suggested that the artist uses the motif of carnival to explore deeper themes related to the human condition.(Anderson, 1965:218-225). I was interested in how I might use such an approach to take the mask theme further in future work.


The paintings are at first glance a simple portrayal of three couples in carnival costumes participating in the celebrations of the festival. The paintings are displayed together, with the six large figures filling much of the picture plane, creating strong vertical elements across the three canvases.The artist has introduced diagonal elements to the paintings through the bent arms of the figures and in daggers placed each of the side panels and a musical instrument in the centre panel.

It is only on seeing these daggers that the viewer might sense that all may not be as it seems and that there may be sinister undertones to the scene. The bent arms form a jagged line across the picture plane, adding to the uneasy atmosphere.

In the left panel, the couples are facing each other, an intimate posture. However, the dagger raises questions about their relationship to each other, suggesting a threat, with the possibility that a violent act may follow imminently.

In the centre panel, both figures look straight ahead towards the viewer and the male figure has his arm placed over the female. Again, there is ambiguity about the pose which could be viewed as affectionate but perhaps not?
A small arm clasps her from behind. This appears to come from a separate figure. These gestures seem to suggest control.

In the right hand panel, the female figure sits astride the male, clinging closely with her arms wrapped around him. The couple do not look happy. My first thought would be they are tired after a long evening of celebration and the male is carrying the female home.  However, a sinister figure lurks behind them wielding a large dagger. There is a definite threat looming. The figure is wearing a bird-like carnival mask and appears to be female, wearing a dress and displaying breasts through a slash in the dress.


The artist makes use of strong contrasts of complementary colours, with the strongest colour statement in the centre panel, where the female figure wears a bright green tunic which contrasts vividly with the flashes of bright red on the floor and the panel on the wall in the background. The red of her tunic also contrasts with the harlequin costume of the male figure on the right hand panel. The bird mask on the right hand panel wears a green cloak, contrasting with the red patches on the print of the dress worn by the female figure.

The red splashed throughout the panel suggests blood, and the possible violent intent of the figures holding the daggers.


The painting “ Carnival” was painted in 1920 just after the end of the First World War and may have been a statement on the horrors of the war. Elements such as control, deception and violent intent are suggested by the red splashes in the colour scheme, the daggers, masks worn by the figures. The clinging posture of the figure on the right hand panel suggests fear, and the weighing down of the spirit.

Beckman’s work continued to be a vehicle for political comment throughout his working life.
Max Beckman was one of the German Expressionist artists reviled by the Nazi regime and his works were included in the infamous Degenerate Art Exhibition in Munich in 1937 held to display examples of art deplored by the regime as unsuitable.

Later Work

One subsequent work, also a triptych “ the Departure” makes a clear political statement. It was painted in 1932 after the Artist lost his job at the hands of the Nazis.

The left hand panel of the painting shows a scene of persecution and torture, representing the growing deprivations and suffering endured by many groups under the rise of the Nazis.

The main central panel, showing the departure of migrants by boat, represents the leaving of native shores for a new life. It has been suggested ( MOMA Highlights:p162) that the presence of the child in the female figure’s arms represents the hope for a new generation and the crowned figure the triumph of the spirit over adversary. Beckman has suggested himself that the right hand panel represents trying to navigate a way in the darkness. This is a painting which could provide inspiration for a potential statement on modern war and migration and to the future development of my own work on migrants.


Anderson, E. (1965). Max Beckmann’s Carnival Triptych. Art Journal,24(3), 218-225. doi:10.2307/774695

Publication excerpt from The Museum of Modern Art, MoMA Highlights, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, revised 2004, originally published 1999, p. 162




Inspiration from Joan Eardley

Research Project 15

Strange New Land

For Project 15, I wanted to develop a collagraph which would depict the grey coastline of the UK as a migrant might experience it on first arriving in the UK. I am interested to explore how other artists had interpreted the coastal theme in their work and was drawn to the paintings of the artist Joan Eardley and in particular to the painting “The Wave”, painted in 1961. 

The painting is a mixed media landscape of Catterline on the East coast of Scotland, painted in the winter months when the skies would often have been dark and overcast. It measures 121.90 x180 cms, is in landscape format and depicts a large wave approaching the rugged cliffs on the East coast shoreline.


The picture plane of the painting is divided roughly into three equal sections: the sky with the land above receding to the background at the top third, the cliffs and shoreline with the wave breaking across it in the middle of the picture plane, and the Sean the lower third. The use of dark grey in the foreground of the work and strong horizontal lines across the painting contrasts strongly with the delicate vertical lines repeated in the centre third, across the breadth of the cliffs. The artist has placed another strong dark horizontal across the upper third of the painting, representing the land beyond the cliffs.


The colour palette of the painting includes neutral dark grey, grey blue and yellow ochre with touches of orange and warm white. The overall effect is muted, and perfectly reflects the type of natural contrasts seen with an approaching storm on the Scottish coastline. The use of muted blues and yellows, colours which sit on the opposite side of the colour wheel, creates colour contrast and interest within the painting. The artist has used a warm white to depict the wave ( the subject of the painting), in strong contrast to the dark grey foreground, effectively highlighting the main subject of interest.


The roughest brushwork is found across the centre of the picture plane, with grit incorporated into the paint for the rendering of the cliffs. This contrasts with the much smoother strokes used for the sky ( the smoothest part of the painting) and foreground. In the foreground, the brushwork follows the horizontal lines which divide the picture plane, separating the cliffs from the shore. This this adds contrast and interest to the painting and keeps the eye of the viewer moving across the picture plan.

Relevance to my own practice

Joan Eardley’s painting very effectively evokes the coastal landscape seen in many parts of the UK. I particularly love the muted complementary colours ( blue grey and yellow grey) the artist has selected. I feel that these would work well in a collagraph of the UK coastline. The composition lends itself well to use in collagraph techniques, where the visual message needs to be delivered using cut or torn materials applied to a surface. The vertical mark making used by Eardley to depict the cliffs could also be represented in collagraph, using corrugated card and I felt that this was something I could used in my own work.

Eardley was known for her expressive style and the incorporation of materials such as sand and grasses into the paint used for her work. This is something which I could consider using within the series of prints for “different” and “Out of the Shadows” to develop the theme further. Another potential route for exploring the theme further could include the incorporation of text as in “Two Children” another work by Eardley.

Experimentation for Project 15

Following my research, I devloped two small acrylic paintings based on the coastline at Beachy Head and using the blue greys and muted cadmium yellows and whites observed in the work of Joan Eardley.


Figure 1: Clifftops after Joan Eardley

Texture was achieved using dripped wax in the lower third of the picture plane. This was then gouged to add a vertical component to the cliffs and texture medium added to acrylic paint on top to build further texture. Colour was added to suggest rocks and sand at the lowest point in the picture plane. One of the most difficult aspects of the painting was achieving the correct balance between abstraction and a more representational approach.


Figure 2: Clifftops after Joan Eardley

Figure 2 tackles the same subject using wax and texture medium as before with the addition of scrim in the foreground to achieve the texture of waves.



National Galleries of Scotland.

Joan Eardley, Two Children, 1963 Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow © Estate of Joan Eardley. All Rights Reserved, DACS 2016

National Galleries of Scotland




Project 6: Masks Research

Hieronymous Bosch: “The Garden of Earthly Delights”


I was drawn to explore this work on the advice of my tutor, in the context of the “Masks” project. Following a visit to the city of Venice,  I took many photographs of the masks which are displayed all over the city and wanted to used these in my own work.

To help me understand the context for this incredibly complex painting I tried first to understand why the artist might have sought used the motifs and themes seen in the painting, looking back to the concept of Carnival and its relationship to the religious beliefs associated with it.

The Masks

Metamorphosis from human to animal form is a common theme in carnival masks and costumes and is used to great effect in the Garden of Earthly Delights.
The artist Max Beckman lived from 1450-1516, in Medieval Europe, when the influence of the church in art was very significant, with many paintings being produced for church patrons. Bosch had connections to the catholic church and would have identified with the concepts of heaven, hell and creation from the teachings of the church. He would have been familiar with the feast of Easter and the concept of Lent and the fasting and penitential rites which are associated with it.

Celebrations of Carnival take place in many Catholic communities in Europe and Latin America immediately prior to the commencement of Lent, a period of strict fasting and penance which is observed by some Christian faith groups for the 6 weeks prior to the religious feast of Easter. Before the fasting of Lent begins, many such communities celebrate with elaborate festivals, with music, dancing and feasting. During the celebrations, participants often wear masks depicting animal figures such as rabbits, lions, clown figures which mask the identity of the original wearer.
Other mask forms include those which depict distortion of the human face, for example, enlarged noses and phallic symbols, the “ Grotesque Body”.
This phenomenon of the Grotesque Body was postulated by the Russian literary critic Michael Bakhtin in relation to his interpretation of the work of Franciose Rabelais. Bakhtin describes the phenomenon as:

“ degradation, the lowering of all that is abstract, spiritual, noble, and ideal to the material level” (Bakhtin)

Bosch makes prolific use of the grotesque within the Garden of Earthly Delights, presumably to both delight the viewer with his vision of paradise and to shock and repulse the viewer with his vision of hell.

The vision of hell depicted in the right hand panel is revealed to us, in stark contrast to the blissful delights of the Garden of Eden on the right hand panel and the earthly paradise shown in the central panel.

The death of my father during the time I was working on the course also heightened thoughts of the concept of the soul and heaven and hell with these themes constantly reappeared in my thinking at this stage of the course.

The interior painting (Figure1), is a triptych painted in oil on wood panel. The interior panels are painted in rich colour and show 3 different landscapes, populated by a wondrous array of human, animal and plant life. Many of the figures combine these different forms of like, in a fantastical representIon of paradise and hell. The richness of the landscape and ever-surprising array of life- forms keeps the eye of the viewer glued to the canvas in an almost voyeuristic experience as the mind absorbs the potential for metamorphosis of man or woman into any number of interesting and horrific forms.

The left panel shows presenting a vision of The Garden of Eden before the fall of Adam and Eve. It is a rich landscape depicting a mountainous background, garden middle and foreground. The artist has place the main figures of interest in the foreground, with God shown in rich pink robes in the centre of the picture plane with Adam and Eve, naked on each side. They are surrounded by a wonderful array of animals and birds amongst which they co-exist in perfect harmony. The tree which will lead to their eventual temptation and expulsion is shown to the left of the picture plane. The use of rich greens and blues, together with the stunning variety of colours used to paint the animal characters creates an image which is both beautiful and welcoming. The freedom suggested by the nakedness of the couple evokes an idyllic existence. We could still identify with these sentiments if we did not have strong religious beliefs as many of Bosch’s original audience would have had.

The central panel is also a rich coloured landscape with background and middle and foreground. A river is shown, flowing towards the distance. Here, the artist seems to have used linear perspective to add to the sense of depth in the painting. The middle and foreground are crammed with figures, some still obviously human in form and some metamorphosed into strange and unrecognisable forms. The figures are completely unselfconscious in their nakedness and postures.

The panel n the right shows Bosch’s vision of Hell. It is a landscape painted using black for the background colour, suggesting perpetual darkness, with the glow of distant fire. A number of hellish scenarios are set out for the human participants in the scene. These show a range of images of torture and degradation in store for those condemned to spend eternity in hell.

When the panels are folded inwards, the exterior depicts the creation of the earth in monochrome, with the Creator presiding over the globe. This sets out the overall narrative for the painting and prepares the viewer for the religious theme to come. The use of monochrome on the exterior of the panels adds to the element of surprise which must assail the viewer on opening the panels to reveal the magnificently coloured interior.

Developing the “Mask”Series

In my work for the Mask series, I have drawn on the concept of the soul and redemption, using manipulation of the Carnival masks which I photographed in Venice. These masks used distortion
( elongation of the nose and chin ). Rabbit and lion heads were also seen in the Venice masks.

I used the Photoshop programme to simplify the mask forms to simple line for use in a print. An alternative approach was to increase the constraint dramatically to abstract the form of the masks.
This produced and interesting effect which was used to develop “ the Soul is Mine Alone” series.

Colours purple, red and black were selected to reflect penitence, sin and death.


1.Bosch: Hieronymus Bosch, Grange Books
Confidential Concepts, worldwide, USA 2004
Sir Rocco, London,2004 (English Version)

2. Hieronymous Bosch Visions and Nightmares, Nils Butter
Publisher,Reaktion Books Ltd, 2016, London

3. Ref Wikipedia




Project 6: Single Colour Linoprints: Masks


Sketchbook page: Initial photograph for mask
Sketchbook page: Further devlopment for mask using photoshop programme


For Project 6, I did 2 separate projects. The mask series was created for the second of the two projects. A selection of work from the Masks project is shown here. The remainder can be found in my paper sketchbook for the project. Research relevant to the project is “Garden of Earthly Delights” by Hieronymous Bosch and  “Carnival” by Max Beckman.

The series was inspired by a visit to Venice.

Sketchbook images from the the mask series of images are presented below:

Thoughts on colour choices were based on the significance of the colours red, purple and black. Red: passion, sex and carnal pleasure. Purple: Lent, penitence, fasting. Black: death and mourning.


Addition of Type using Photoshop Programme


Project 6: Single Linocut




Edward Bawden was an English artist well-known for his skills as a graphic artist, illustrator and watercolourist. His work included illustrations for many books and posters. He was widely travelled, having visited many counties in Africa and the Middle East and Europe during the 2nd World War (Wikipedia).

Figure 1: Title Whale (woodcut on paper):, Edward Bawden (1903-89)
Medium:woodcut on paper: Dimensions: 65×95 cms
Edition 9/100

The first work which I selected to investigate was the linocut “Whale” (Figure ).
It is a black and white woodcut printed in landscape format and fairly large in scale at 65x 95cms. I chose this work because I found it both visually striking and loved the fact that it tells a story which is of interest to me.


The whale is placed across the centre of the picture plane, occupying most of the centre of the print, a factor which helps to convey its large size relative to the other elements of the print. The whale dwarfs the hunters who are pursuing it in a small boat. The artist shows the hunters rowing, with one wielding a spear, preparing to throw. His aggression is in contrast to the defencelessness and passivity of the whale, despite its enormous size.


The picture tells a tale: the pursuing hunters, a displaced boat which has tipped it’s occupants into the water. Despite it’s large size, the whale looks frightened and panic- stricken and there is a sense that it will not escape it’s pursuers.


The print demonstrates a wide range of marks across the picture plane: rhythmic curling waves beneath the whale, jagged short marks above the whale suggesting choppy water, a night sky suggested in the upper left corner of the work which has been left uncut to suggest the darkness of the sky contrasting with the much lighter sea below.
The texture of the whale has been created using long straight cuts along it’s length. The water being extruded from the whale’s blowhole uses delicate curving cuts to suggest the flowing water emerging from the blowhole.
Overall, I think the print is very successful. It is pleasing to look at visually and very effectively tells a story at the same time.

The next print I selected was a linocut titled Tyger Tyger.

Figure 2
Tyger, Tyger (linocut), Edward Bawden, (1903-89).
English Medium: linocut


The print has been made in landscape format. The Tiger which is the subject of the print is placed centrally, across the picture plane. He is shown stalking in deep undergrowth. The artist emphasises the camouflage of the stalking tiger amongst the grasses by mirroring the marks used on the tiger’s coat in the grasses.

Mark making

The artist has varied the direction and length of the marks on the tiger’s body to help them stand out against the background, but the sense that the tiger is well hidden is preserved. Those used on the tiger’s body are much shorter than the long vertical marks used to depict the grasses among which he moves. The artist has depicted the tiger’s head full face onto the viewer. He has used a different range of marks to describe the tiger’s head, with small round marks carved out to depict the whiskers and ears.

The vegetation has been left mainly uncut, with sharply constraining rounded forms cut out to provide sharp contrast amongst the dark leaf forms.

Choice of this work

I was particularly interested in the tiger as a subject, as I had used the tiger motif in the masked monoprint section of the course. I was very interested to see how a similar subject created using a different technique could produce a very different mood. This is a subject I would perhaps like to revisit using combined techniques.


“Pink Eyes”

Another work selected for review is the etching “Pink Eyes” by Richard Bawden.

Figure 3
Title: Pink Eyes (etching)
Bawden, Richard (b.1936)
Medium: etching


I was drawn to the work due to the delicacy of the rendering of the rabbit which is the subject of the print and the beautiful soft colour scheme of neutral greys, pale orange which provide a prefect background for the delicate whiteness of the rabbit.


The artist has used a vertical format, dividing the picture plane almost in half horizontally using the horizon line. The rabbit is placed in the lower section of the picture plane centrally, beside a ghostly tree positioned to the right of the rabbit. A ghostly moon shines in the night sky in the upper section of the picture plane in the darkest portion of the night sky. A pale orange light illuminates the night sky to the left, providing a warm contrast to the otherwise seemingly monochromatic scene. The only other strong colour is the pink eyes of the rabbit. The rabbit’s fur has a faint tinge of pink across it’s coat, with white highlights helping to develop the texture of the fur.The use of a monochrome scheme for most of the print emphasises the pink of the rabbit’s eyes helping them to stand out in a way which would be difficult if the work showed more colour elsewhere.

The artist has managed to convey a sense of the animal’s soft fur by the very delicate marks used for the handling of the fur around the rabbit, contrasting with its surroundings.

Overall, it is a beautiful delicate print which suggests an “otherworldliness” to the nocturnal life of the rabbit.

The second work  by Richard Bawden is a linocut titled “Hares at Holbacks”.

Figure 4

Title: Hares at Holbacks (linocut)
Bawden, Richard (b.1936): Medium: linocut
43×63 cms

This is a multicolour linoprint of hares in a woodland setting. The most striking feature of the print is the mark making used to develop the coats of the animals. For the hare in the foreground, the artist has used a wide variety if horizontal marks to describe the fur of the hare, changing the direction of the marks to vertical on the animal’s legs. The fur of the underbelly is described by the white of the paper and short vertical marks, contrasting with the rougher fur on the animal’s back.


The foreground hare occupies the centre of the work in the middle third of the picture plane. The woodland recedes into the background and for this, the artist has developed less detailed marks than for the foreground hare and woodland plants. In the foreground, the veins of the leaves are shown in detail. The marks on the background hare are small and delicate and less detailed than in the foreground animal.

I found it very interesting how with limited colours, the artist has developed a sense of perspective in the print by reducing the size and detail of objects in the distance, such as the trees. I found it impossible to tell how the colours had been achieved, whether by reduction or multiple blocks but believe that the soft edges suggest this is a print created by the reduction method. This is something I would like to explore



2. Whale (woodcut on paper), Bawden, Edward (1903-89) / Imperial College Healthcare Charity Art Collection, London / Bridgeman Images
3 Tyger, Tyger (linocut), Bawden, Edward (1903-89) / © Fry Art Gallery, Saffron Walden, Essex, UK / Bridgeman Images

5. Pink Eyes (etching), Bawden, Richard (b.1936) / © Fry Art Gallery, Saffron Walden, Essex, UK / Bridgeman Images
6. Hares at Holbacks (linocut), Bawden, Richard (b.1936) / Private Collection / Sally Hunter Fine Art, London, UK / Bridgeman Images
hare running wood woodland forest




Project 6: Single colour linocut


Unspoken1 : Anywhere but here

Exploring the Topic

Initial exploration centred on the concept of home and family. I brainstormed words which I felt related to the topic  and used the computer to print these in a variety of fonts:





Ayrshire Cottages: Image used as the basis for Unspoken 1: Anywhere but here

The image which I selected to work on for this project was based on a landscape  of cottages on the Clyde Coast in Ayshire, Scotland. The title refers to what remained unspoken after my dad moved away after my mum died. We never really spoke about it as the subject was always too delicate to discuss. The two birds represent his new life.

The original image was revised from one of my original paintings to suit the project and sketched in white chalk on black paper. This gave me an idea what the work would look like as a print. I then traced the main features onto tracing paper and transferred these to my Lino block. I wanted to create a bleak mood, and  to keep the cottages distinctly white against a black background, with dark sky and textured foreground. The use of this colour scheme made the introduction of the birds relatively simple.

I was able to introduce variety of mark making in the path to the cottages using short deep cuts to create the effect of pebbles, decreasing in size as they moved into the mid- ground. Variety was also added through the addition of grasses in the foreground, both short and long. The piece below was my first print from the block and this was subsequently modified to improve the form of the rocks